The 2014 Egyptian constitution: balancing leadership with civil rights (al-madaniyya)
In 2013, in the aftermath of the military coup d'état, many ‘Islamized’ articles have been banned from the 2012 Egyptian constitution and almost one hundred firmly inclined towards the respect of human rights and the absolutim on freedom of belief have been added. This latter issue did cause pragmatisms on the freedom of worship and on the nature of the new leadership, which remains intrinsically unstated in the 2014 text. Essential questions concerning the conceptualization of citizenship and its extension (al-wataniyya,) as well as the pluralism of the concept of ‘madaniyya’ (as right to the city) still remain unanswered. Based on the critical discourse analysis and in person observations dating back to 2012, this article will attempt to address and understand to what extent by changing the meaning of wataniyya the future of Egypt can change accordingly.